“SANKHYA”- Scientific Principles of Evolution of Universe: Primacy of Nature

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November 3, 2012 by Indian Schools of Thought


Sankhya was the oldest and its atheism was most renowned in the history of Indian thought.

The Godless doctrine of primordial matter, (NIRISHWARA  PRADHANA  KARANA VADA)

PRAKRITI is one entity but is composed of the opposite elements of SATVA,RAJAS, TAMAS


RAJAS  is the cause of all activity and energizing.

TAMAS is responsible for inertia and restraint of activity. Causal connection is not irreversible.

Qualities not present originally in any of the component factors may emerge subsequently when the factors are combined together.

The SANKHYA  system possesses a unique interest in the history of thought as embodying the earliest clear of comprehensive account of the process of cosmic evolution, viewed not as a mere a metaphysical speculation but as a positive principle, based on the conservation, the transformation and dissipation of energy.

Primitive matter  the PRADHANA alone is the ultimate Reality.  First cause of the world.

This world which is non-intelligent and comprises  SATVA,  RAJAS,  TAMAS can only be the effect  of a cause itself non-intelligent.  The product (World) is none  other than the “Material  Cause” in a definite stage of evolution and that preceding stages are to be inferred from that which has upon before us.

This is PRAKRITI, primitive matter, from which the universe is evolved in regular course.  It further the existence in the entire universe of these substances  ‘GUNAS’  united in similar and unstable proportions of which the First (SATVA) exhibits qualities of lightness ,illumination and joy, the second RAJAS, OF movement , excitation  and pain,  the third TAMAS of heaviness, obstruction and sloth.

Primitive matte was composed of these three constituents.   Under developed primitive matter (also was composed) is the state of equilibrium of three constituents, undeveloped.   As a result of disturbance,  the material universe evolved.

Sankhya theory of evolution which gave this system a unique status in the history of Indian philosophy.  The starting point is the concept of Causality.  The SANKHYA  view of causality is the doctrine of  pre-existence of the effect in the cause.  The potential and the actual is already there form the basis of the concept. (The tree is contained within seed , nevertheless,  the tree is not seed nor seed is tree.) in other words , the tree is contained potentially within the seed.  It is only in this sense that nature of the tree is determined by the nature of the seed or conversely , the tree.  Similar is the relation between the visible world and the PRAKRITI. The visible world is the product or effect of the “PRAKRITI” itself. But  that does not mean that the PRAKRITI  is to be equated with to the visible world and as such the rendering of the term “nature’ , Nature in the sense of the totality contained in the PRAKRITI , but PRAKRITI  and Nature are not the same.

To distinguish between nature as the product of the “PRAKRITI’ ;  the product of the ‘PRAKRITI’ and the ‘PRAKRIT’ as the cause of the  nature were ‘VYAKATA’  and ‘AVYAKTA’, the expressed and pre-expressed d or , as these are commonly rendered , the manifest  and the un-manifest.

The ‘VYAKTA’  is caused, ‘non-eternal’ or in consistent ‘non-prevailing’, active, multitudinous, dependent, liable to extinction, round,  made of parts and serving (something  else); the ‘AVYAKTA’ in being on the other hand resembles the ‘VYAKTA’ is the reverse of all these.  Again accordingly the ‘AVYAKTA’ on the other hand resembles ‘VYAKTA’ in being composed of three ‘GUNA’ without the faculty of discrimination ‘AVIVEKI’ , objective  ‘VISAYAH’  universal  ‘SAMANAYAM’,  unconscious ‘ACHETNANAM’ and prolific ‘PRASAVA  DHARMA’.

The manifested world is traced in ‘SANKHYA’ to an un-manifested, ground, the ‘PRAKRITI’ , which is conceived as formless and undifferentiated rounded and limitless and ubiquitous, indestructible and un-decaying, ungrounded  and uncontrolled without beginning and without end.

In the primitive pre-evolved state, their ‘PRAKRITI’  formed a perfect equilibrium ‘SAMYA  AVASTHA’  of its three  constituents or ‘GUNA’ , called ‘SATVA’, RAJAS and TAMAS’.

Always uniting, separating , uniting again.

The potential of manifested intelligence ‘SATVA’, manifested energy-“Rajas’, manifested mass or inertia-‘TAMAS’.

SATVA, RAJAS, TAMAS ‘ constituted  essence of all the things of the concrete visible world.  But there is in these evolutes no more any equilibrium of the ‘GUNA’ , some pre-pondering over the other.

‘PRADHANA’ –the primordial  or primeval matter or matter in its original pre-evolved state , i.e. a state ,i.e. a state of matter from which the world or the universe was yet to evolve.  The primary matte was the ultimate reality.  The cause of the universe (PRADHANA-ACHETNA).

Existence of PRADHANA  was based on the doctrine of causality , the nature of cause is to be inferred basis of this doctrine of causality was the observation of  the facts of nature, called para llel (process) instances (DRISRNTA VALA).

Natural cause is sufficient, for the purpose of producing the world.  Observation  of nature (DRISTANTA VALA) teach the movements of modification are to be found in changes in some material entity rather than in a principle of intelligence or .

SVABHAVA NIYA- (from its own nature) It is only because of the natural laws rather than  any spiritual principle that the primeveal matter modified itself into the world of nature.  Indep;endently of any other instrumental cause (NIMITA ANTARA NIRA PEKSA)  transform themselves, by their  own nature (SWABHAVATAT  EVA) PRADHANA also transforms itself  into the Great principle (MAHAT).

It is out of primordial matter ‘PRAKRITI’ , itself, alone, as equipped with all potencies, that the various products evolve, really having their essence in same matter.


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