An introduction to Indian Logic Tarka

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October 24, 2011 by Indian Schools of Thought


Here is an introduction to the basic principles of the five Schools of thought of India.  Lokayata ans Sankhya school of thought have very ancient roots and have influenced all major religions of India, their roots are pre-religious time to the Matriarchal traditions which were prevalent all over the world before the modern religions came to existence. It will surprise many that the Heritage of the Indian philosophy is rich with the Atheistic logic and is exceptional in the whole history of the philosophy all over he world.  There are no parallels to this heritage in all over the world.

Shocking is the treatment by the most Orthodox philosophers and adherent to the Indian scriptures Vedas, the Mimamska as one of the foremost Atheists of India with the most sophisticated logic and arguments and vehemently opposing the concept of God as fundamental to their philosophy.  This is really an amazing aspect of Orthodox followers of scriptures being staunch atheists.


Indian school of thoughts, Indian heritage and traditions culture history scientific traditions of Indian thoughts scientific thinking in Indian philosophy exclusive Indian logic.

Indian (Tarka)  logic used two aspects for the proof (Pramana) in philosophical disputation.  Pratayaksha and Anuman were two major methods used.

The view of the opponents were clearly defined and defended with the logic of the opponents called Purvapaksha, only after that they  were surgically analysed and refuted.  This  continued vigorously for 1200 years in the branch of the philosophy Nyaya Visheshika (The atomic theory of the Indian philosophy-founder Kanada). Perhaps Indian would have been endowed with  own Newton and Einstein  but for British colonialism the great Indian philosophy was treated something spiritual and backward.  To deny its proper place and its role in science became  white man’s burden (a colonial logic).

The Moghuls were the great patrons of the Indian philosophy and organized many royal court discourses.  The great debates and development of the Indian traditions were ignored and systematically suppressed by the imposed colonial  westernized mindset at present  and the colonial British educational policies before the independence..

Unfortunately with present perpetuated westernized brain washing;  today we are not aware of the rich treasure of the Indian state craft, philosophy , particularly  the human rights as defined in our shastras and darshana.

Anumana was an important aspect of the Indian philosophy.  Indian philosophy depends on the  two major aspects of the proof to justify its system of thoughts. Parmana and Anumana.


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